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The Prophet Muhammad (peace upon him)

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The Prophet Muhammad (peace upon him)

Mesaj  Admin la data de Lun Mai 16, 2011 7:56 pm

The Prophet Muhammad was born around the year 570 in the city of Mecca, Arabia. His name means "highly praised." Muhammad's full name was Abu al-Qasim Muhammad Ibn Abd Allah Ibn Abd al-Muttalib Ibn Hashim. He was the last prophet of the religion of Islam.
Muhammad's father, Abdallah, died several weeks before his birth and his mother, Aminah, died when he was six years old. He was raised by his paternal grandfather, 'Abd al Muttalib, until the age of eight, and after his grandfather's death by Abu Talib, his paternal uncle. Under the guardianship of Abu Talib, Muhammad began to earn a living as a businessman and a trader.
The tradition of Islam claims that in the year 610, Muhammad, while on a retreat to Mount Hira for meditation during the month of Ramadan, received his first revelation from the Archangel Gabriel. Gabriel said to Muhammad: "Iqraa," meaning "read" or "recite." He replied, "I cannot read." Gabriel embraced Muhammad and after releasing him repeated: "Iqraa." Muhammad's answer was the same as before. Gabriel repeated the embrace, asking Muhammad to repeat after him and said: "Recite in the name of your Lord who created! He created man from that which clings. Recite; and thy Lord is most Bountiful, He who has taught by the pen, taught man what he knew not."
The Angel Gabriel visited the Muhammad many times over a period of twenty-three years. Gabriel taught Muhammad the verses and he instructed his scribes to record them. All the revealed verses are compiled in the Qur'an. The Prophet's sayings and actions are recorded separately in collections known as Hadith. Muslims believe that Muhammad was a messenger of Allah (Arabic for The One and Only God) and last of the prophets sent by Allah to guide man to the right path.
The Prophet's mission was to restore the worship of the One True God, the creator and sustainer of the universe, as taught by Prophet Abraham and all Prophets of God, and to demonstrate the laws of moral, ethical, legal, and social conduct. Islam means peace by submission and obedience to the Will and Commandments of God. Those who accept Islam are called Muslims, meaning those who have accepted the message of peace by submission to God.
The Qur'an provides insight into the missions, struggles and communities of twenty-five Prophets, the first of which is Adam. The Qur'an mentions four previously revealed Scriptures: Suhoof (Pages) of Abraham, Taurat ('Torah') as revealed to Moses, Zuboor ('Psalms') as revealed to David, and Injeel ('Evangel') as revealed to Jesus. Islam requires belief in all the prophets and revealed scriptures as part of its Articles of Faith.
Muhammad's first few followers were his cousin, Ali, his servant, Zayd ibn Harithah, his friend, Abu Bakr and his wife and daughters. They all accepted Islam by testifying that: "There is no Deity (worthy of worship) except Allah (The One True God) and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah." By the end of his life, Muhammad had several hundred thousand followers.
Before he died in 632, Muhammad had established the religious practices known as "the five pillars of Islam." They are declaring the oneness of Allah and his messenger Muhammad; praying five times a day; fasting during the month of Ramadan; giving to charity; and making the pilgrimage to Mecca. Some Muslims recognize a sixth pillar in the Islamic jihad that can be an armed conflict in defence of Islam (known as the lesser jihad); and improving one's spiritual being (called the greater jihad).
Muhammad is the model of Qur'anic behavior for Muslims. They mention his name by adding "peace be upon him," a phrase used with the name of all the prophets. Muslims try to follow the Qur'an and the Prophet's example in every detailThe Prophet Mohammed was born sometime between 570-571 A.D. Mohammed was born to the Quraish tribe. His father Abdulla died before he was born and his mother died sometime around when he was five years old. Mohammed was adopted by his uncle, Abu Talib, and it was on a trade journey to Syria that Mohammed came into contact with Christianity. His uncle arranged a marriage for Mohammed when he was 25 with Khadija a wealthy widow who was 10-15 years older than Mohammed.
Mohammed was a contemplative individual and liked to spend his free time in isolation pondering the world in a cave called Hira outside of Mecca. It was while sitting in this cave that Mohammed began his life as a prophet at the age of forty. While sitting in Hira, Mohammed was visited by an angel who taught him a verse and made him recite back the verse. He met with this angel a few more times, he recited more versus praising Allah, God, and was told by the angel to spread this message. Mohammed told Khadija his wife about these meetings and she believed that he was a messenger of Allah and was the first to believe in Islam. Mohammed is friend Abubakr, his cousin Ali, and Mohammed's slave Zaid also believed in what Mohammed was saying and became followers of Islam.
Mohammed grew bolder in spreading his message and spoke from the mount of Safa to the people of Mecca proclaiming that they should give up their old gods for Allah and to follow the ways of Islam. Over the next ten years Mohammed would preach whenever he could in Mecca. Mohammed is message began to wear on the nerves of the Quarish citizens of Mecca who were polytheists and rejected Mohammed's idea of monotheism. They began to insult and ridicule Mohammed and his message, his uncle Abu Lahab would lead these assaults and claimed that Mohammed was crazy. After the death of his uncle Abu Talib and his wife Khadija the assaults against Mohammed grew worse. He left Mecca and went to the city of Taif to spread the message of Allah. He was only in Taif for a short time before he was forced to leave for preaching about Allah and had to return to Mecca. When he returned to Mecca, he was again subject to assault and things grew worse. Although many people heard Mohammed is message and rejected his ideas Mohammed did gain a few converts in Mecca.
Mohammed is a message upset many and the persecution of the followers of Islam was so bad that some of his followers had to leave their homes and go to Habsha seeking the protection of the Christian king Negus. More and more of Mohammed is followers were leaving Mecca for Habsha to escape persecution. But not all who listened to Mohammed is message ridiculed him. In 620 A.D., he was able to win converts among the tribe of Yathrib, (Madina) and converted many of the Yathrib tribe to Islam. The Yathrib had heard of Mohammed is reputation as a man of wisdom and hoped that he could help settle disputes in Madina, between themselves, some local Jews, and other groups of people. Mohammed converted so many members of the Yathrib tribe to Islam that he was able to form an alliance pact with the Yathrib who promised him protection if he were to come to live with them in Madina.
Following his pact with the Yathrib tribe all the followers of Islam save three left Mecca for Madina. The Mohammed is followers had left Mecca to escape the ridicule and oppression that was carried out against them by the non-believers. Only Mohammed, his cousin Ali, and Mohammed is friend Abu Bakr stayed behind in Mecca. Mohammed and Abu Bakr would leave Mecca after finding out about a Qurish conspiracy to kill Mohamed. With most of Mohammed is followers gone, Qurish tribal leaders who harbored resentment against Mohammed decided to assassinate him. Their plan was to murder Mohammed in his home at night but Mohammed found out about the plot and left Mecca before they could carry out their plans. Abu Bakr and Mohammed were able to escape Mecca and were able to flee to Madina and were they fell under the protection of the Yathrib tribe.
In Madina Mohammed was no longer persecuted but was respected by the people and rose to a high position of power solving disputes between the various locales. As an arbitrator Mohammed was widely respected by the people of Madina, he also began to work on his message at this time. He had in Mecca set the codes of conduct to live by, in Madina he worked on what relations between followers of Islam should be with one another and with non-believers. It was also in Madina that Mohammed made Islam more Arabian. Mohammed believed that some Jews who lived in Madina were conspiring against him with the Qurish tribe of Mecca, those who had forced him to leave his home. Mohammed also had problems with the Hypocrites, Medinese Arabs who falsely proclaimed faith in Islam and allied themselves with the Jews who opposed Mohammed. Trouble began between Mohammed, the Hypocrites and the Jews when some of Mohammed is people attacked a caravan during a time period that was traditionally observed as being a time of peace. The Hypocrites were upset that Mohammed did not observe this traditional cease-fire and Mohammed was upset with them for being angry at his people who did the raid out of necessity for survival.

Fourteen hundred years ago, when people asked the Prophet Muhammad (s.a.a.w.), who is your Lord. The answer came in the following verse of the Holy Quran:

قُلْ هُوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ

Say: "He is Allah, the One and Only. (The Holy Quran, Surah Al-Ikhlas, Ayah 1, 112:1)

Later Mohammed plotted to attack another caravan just outside of Mecca. The Quarish tribe learned of this attack and led a large number of attackers against Mohammed�s few raiders. The battle between Mohammed�s small force and the Quarish tribe�s overwhelming force is known as the Battle of Badr. Mohammed�s victory over the Quarish was seen as further proof that Mohammed was a prophet of God. The Quarish would attack Madina a year later and would defeat Mohammed�s forces and wound Mohammed, but withdrew before sacking the city. The Quarish would attack Madina once more in the following year but this attack would fail because Mohammed had a large trench around the city dug and the attackers had to give up the attack after their supplies ran out. This battle was known as the Battle of the Trench.

After the Battle of the Trench Mohammed expelled most of the Jewish tribes from the city of Madina and Mohammed had all six to eight hundred members of the Qurayza tribe beheaded. Mohammed was no longer going to be on the defensive he was going to go on the offensive. Mohammed organized a large force and was going to march on Mecca, when the Quarish tribe sent out a representative to negotiate a peace with Mohammed. The Quarish tribe was able to negotiate a peace settlement with Mohammed they would no longer persecute followers of Islam and Mohammed would agree not to march on Mecca. The peace settlement was reached in 628, and was known as the Treaty of Hudaibiya. A year later Mohammed assembled again assembled a large force and marched into Mecca, Abu Sufyan the head of the Quarish tribe quickly became a muslim and so did a large number of the Quarish tribe if they wished to survive with Mohammed now in charge. Mohammed also took all the idols out of the Kaba and destroyed them, making Islam the only recognized religion in Mecca. Mohammed who was an outcast of his own people returned as a prophet of God and died in Medina on June 8, 632. Mohammed iss close friend Abu Bakr, took over the position as arbitrator that Mohammed had left when he passed away. Abu Bakr declared Mohammed the last prophet of Allah and made it clear that any Muslim tribes that broke away to follow any one else.

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