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Despre Algeria

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Despre Algeria

Mesaj  Admin la data de Joi Mai 19, 2011 3:01 pm

Algeria is located in the north of the African continent. It is the largest Mediterranean country, in terms of surface area, and the second largest in the continent. Algeria is bordered by Tunisia in the northeast, Libya in the east, Niger in the southeast, Mali and Mauritania in the southwest, Morocco in the west and northwest, and the Mediterranean Sea in the north. Its size is almost 2,400,000 km2, and it has an estimated population of about 35,700,000 as of January 2010.
Name

The name of the country is derived from the city of Algiers. The name الجزائر Al-jazā’ir, truncated form of the city's older name of جزائر بني مازغان , the Arabic for "the islands of Mazghanna", as used by early medieval geographers such as al-Idrisi and Yaqut al-Hamawi. In Classical times northern Algeria was known as Numidia, which included parts of modern day western Tunisia and eastern Morocco.


Flag

The Algerian flag consists of two equal vertical bars, green and white, charged in the center with a red star and crescent. The white color represents peace; the green, the beauty of nature; the red, the blood of those killed fighting for independence in the Algerian War (1954 to 1962) and the star and crescent represent Islam.

The flag was adopted on July 3, 1962. A similar version was used by the Algerian government in exile from 1958 to 1962. Algerian Flag

The flag's design is inspired from the standard of Emir Abdel Kadir in the 19th century which consisted of two equal vertical bands, green and white, as well as being inspired from the flag of the Algerian Regency from the 16th to the 19th century, which consisted of a white crescent and star on a red background (the same as the modern flag of Turkey; the Algerian Regency was an autonomous member state of the Ottoman Empire). However, for the most part its history is unclear. It is also believed to be based on a flag created in 1928 by Messali Hadj, a nationalist leader. White, green and red, along with the star and crescent have been used historically in Islamic countries.
Provinces

Algeria is currently divided into 48 wilayas (provinces), 553 daïras (circles, or counties) and 1541 baladiyahs (municipalities, in French: commune). The capital city of a baladiyah, daïra, or province (which is also the largest city of those) always gives those entities their name, even Algiers, the capital of the country gave it its name (El Djazayar, the Arabic name for both the city and the country).

According to the Algerian constitution, a wilaya is a territorial collectivity enjoying economic and diplomatic freedom, the APW, or "Popular Provincial Parliament/Provincial Popular Parliament" (the Assemblée Populaire Wilayale, in French) is the political entity governing a province, directed by the "Wali" (Governor), who is chosen by the Algerian President to handle the APW's decisions, the APW has also a president, who is elected by the members of the APW, which is elected by Algerians.
Excavations in Algeria have indicated that Homo erectus resided there between 500,000 and 700,000 years ago. Phoenician traders settled on the Mediterranean coast in the 1st millennium B.C. As ancient Numidia, Algeria became a Roman colony, part of what was called Mauretania Caesariensis, at the close of the Punic Wars (145 B.C. ). Conquered by the Vandals about A.D. 440, it fell from a high state of civilization to virtual barbarism, from which it partly recovered after an invasion by Arabs about 650. Christian during its Roman period, the indigenous Berbers were then converted to Islam. Falling under the control of the Ottoman Empire by 1536, Algiers served for three centuries as the headquarters of the Barbary pirates. Ostensibly to rid the region of the pirates, the French occupied Algeria in 1830 and made it a part of France in 1848.

Algerian independence movements led to the uprisings of 1954–1955, which developed into full-scale war. In 1962, French president Charles de Gaulle began the peace negotiations, and on July 5, 1962, Algeria was proclaimed independent. In Oct. 1963, Ahmed Ben Bella was elected president, and the country became Socialist. He began to nationalize foreign holdings and aroused opposition. He was overthrown in a military coup on June 19, 1965, by Col. Houari Boumédienne, who suspended the constitution and sought to restore economic stability. After his death, Boumédienne was succeeded by Col. Chadli Bendjedid in 1978. Berbers rioted in 1980 when Arabic was made the country's only official language. Algeria entered a major recession after world oil prices plummeted in the 1980s.




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